Essay submission

Jing Hui Fu's Avatar

Jing Hui Fu

16 Apr, 2017 11:22 PM

Hello. I keep trying to submit my essay, which is completed. However, it keeps returning to being "saved" only and not submitted. what should i do?

  1. 1 Posted by Luisina Busso on 16 Apr, 2017 11:31 PM

    Luisina Busso's Avatar


    I'm very sorry about this inconvenience. Your case will be considered, so don't panic. If you'd like, you can send me your essay by email. My question is, the essay that is on is the essay you tried to submit, right? I mean, is it finished?

    Looking forward to your reply,

    Luisina Busso
    Student Relations
    South American Business Forum

  2. Luisina Busso closed this discussion on 16 Apr, 2017 11:31 PM.

  3. Jane Fu Jing Hui re-opened this discussion on 16 Apr, 2017 11:37 PM

  4. 2 Posted by Jane Fu Jing Hu... on 16 Apr, 2017 11:37 PM

    Jane Fu Jing Hui's Avatar

    Dear Luisina Busso,

    Attached below is my essay.

    Thank you


    Jing Hui Fu

    *Title: *HEALTH: Medical Innovation - Money medicine

    "I have 3 kidneys."

    "Oh, how so?"

    "2 are mine. Another one, I got it from China."

    Transplant medicine has always been a double-edged sword: a blessing in
    disguise, a blade in bold. Prior to this, the organ harvesting market
    evolves around 3 simple questions: "Where do I a kidney?" "Hush, want a
    kidney?" "Do you have enough money for a kidney?" Evidently, the priority
    of transplant medicine lies in the equilibrium between supply and demand,
    and in short, is very much business. The sources of organs include the
    death-row prisoners, and many more unexplained, sparking speculations that
    most are obtained illegally from victims who are persuaded, lured and
    trafficked. Over the years, many are horrified at the controversial
     prospect of exploiting the poor, the disadvantaged and thus, have openly
    condemned the practice of selling organs to the wealthier nations at
    various global occasions. Along with great efforts, world governments have
    passed and enforced many agreements and bills of legal framework to seek a
    balance between reduce suffering, advocating utilitarianism and equal human

    Most importantly, such practices are gradually hampered and reaching a halt
    as 3D bioprinting surfaces, widely claimed to be the gold standard of
     solving the issues of a long wait list and matching donors while saving
    millions of lives. Bioprinting is a new technology developed primarily to
    rapidly manufacture artificial organs via 3D printing method by
    constructing a particular organ layer-by-layer to form biological
    microstructures that resemble a natural organ anatomically and
    functionally. The obvious advantages are the likelihood of eradicating
    organ harvesting black market and the capability of protecting the poor
    from exploitation.

    When 3D printing first gained global attention in 2012, no one has the
    slightest clue about building something great, besides producing some
    miniature legoes that hopefully fit together, let alone revolutionizing an
    entire industry. However, our world just proved the impact of a visionary
    innovation and how fast science progresses. Today, as the terms "empathetic
    healthcare", "personalised care" and "tailored treatment" dominate the
    medical profession, we see a future of surgical transplant medicine fading
    into background, replaced by 2-dimensional images that are structuralized
    into reality. Suddenly, clinicians and bioengineers are printing perfectly
    functioning bone tissues from mere existing scan results. Furthermore, this
    technology has proven visionary as many medical schools are contemplating
    about allowing students to practise their skills on artificial tissue
    scaffolds while studying the effects of drugs and their metabolism in real
    time. Moreover, many in the United States are taking a step ahead,
    considering the possibility of replacing prosthetics with bionic limbs to
    improve quality of life among war veterans.

    The potential of organ printing is promising with an endless
    possibility. However,
    ethical issues are dismayingly legion. While many resented the idea of
    exploiting others' organs, the society is unable to decide what it thinks
    about 3D bioprinting. Among many, 3 ethical challenges are commonly


       Is it safe?

    This technology is undoubtedly new with tremendous room for growth. What do
    we currently know? We are informed that the materials are made of either
    our own or others' stem cells to promote cell multiplication and tissue
    regeneration while eliminating the risk of organ rejection which leads to
    the required use of lifelong steroids and consequently, potentially fatal
    immunosuppression, like in traditional organ transplants. They are
    therefore designed to be specifically compatible with our bodies. However,
    such technology has not, and cannot undergo a sizable clinical trial on the
    healthy population. This is because, like a bespoke customized suit, organ
    printing derived from stem cells are highly specific and individualised.
    Therefore, even if the artificial organs are proven to be safe and
    effective for use now, we will not be able to discover how long they would
    be safe for.


       Regulations and laws

    While some dystopians are alarmed as we defy natural selections, many
    more celebrate
    the idea of alleviating suffering. However, the most pressing matter is d
    efining the purpose of an artificial organ which warrants ethical debates.
     Some scientists are ready to escalate the progress of technology, to
    discover a new anatomical direction – the idea of enhancing bodily functions,
    while businessmen desire to ride the tide of business opportunities in
    organ mass production. Do we design an artificial organ with the mere purpose
    of restoring functions, or to change the world by enhancing our abilities? Just
    like the gene-editing artificial fertilization technology that helps to
    eliminate genetic diseases yet choosing what genes are worthy to pass down,
    people are able to select what they want. Looking forward to a leap of
    faith, many push for organs that function beyond human capacities. They
    talk about the possibility of constructing livers that metabolizes ethanol
    instantaneously, hearts that pump fast enough to support a football team of
    Usain Bolt(s) and physiques that scream endurance. We certainly worry about
    not only the inhumane amplification of strength, but also the abuse of such
    power. Most importantly, our agony lies in the possibility of weaponization
    of both the bionic devies and ultimately, human ourselves, which
    potentially becomes a trigger of disruption to the peace our ancestors have
    thrived so hard to achieve in the past 50 years.

    While unable to judge what is right, regulatory committee must be set up
    soon to monitor the direction of bioprinting under the scrutiny of laws and
    policies before it goes astray and uncontrolled.


       Who gets access?

    Ask ourselves this question: Should the wealthy be able to live their lives
    as they wish and buy a liver in the future, while the poor lives cautiously
    only to die in vain later on? As replacing our organs with the enhanced one
    inevitably becomes a trend in future, those without financial background
    will most likely lose out at competing from the very beginning. The
    implementation of organ printing easily highlights, if not widens, the
    wealth disparities between the rich and the poor. It divides the society. This
    technology is new, revolutionizing, and certainly an expensive one. Without
    governmental subsidy, only the financially resourceful will have access to
    this innovation. It is saddening because although life encompasses many
    values, economic status will most probably become the strongest determinant in
    deciding who is most worthy of evolving.

    Even if the national council approves endowment, who qualifies for an
    artificial organ- the war veterans or the congenitally limbless infant? Who
    decide- the doctors, the patients or the government? How do we ensure a
    fair distribution of healthcare provision and justice in this case? We need
    a definite answer to these questions.

    In conclusion, 3D bioprinting has certainly transformed the industry
    of transplant
    medicine and leading the path with an exciting future of uncertainty. Are
    some people's existence based on the sole purpose of selling a part of them?
    No. This is why the world has put tremendous effort in fighting against
    illegal organ trades. However, as the power of organ printing emerges, the
    society seems to experience a misplaced sense of what is morally
    right. Therefore,
    it is of utmost quintessence to strike a clear, holistic balance between
    justice and empathy before reaching a general consensus of our
    attitudes towards
    this revolutionizing technology, as a society. More studies must be
    conducted to thoroughly understand the consequences of widely
    implementing organ
    printing. For now, all we can say is both the society and technology will
    adapt eventually. Personally, although technology has advanced
     exponentially, both traditional transplant medicine and 3D bioprinting
    share similar roots of concern: safety, justice and its ultimate purpose.
    Maybe we haven't progressed much in humanity, have we?


     Atala, Anthony. "Printing a Human Kidney". *TED Talk |*.

     Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander (2016).
    "Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing
    technology". *Medical
    Hypotheses*. *87*: 30–3. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2015.12.017. PMID 26826637.

  5. 3 Posted by Jing Hui Fu on 16 Apr, 2017 11:43 PM

    Jing Hui Fu's Avatar

    Sure. The essay is completed. Do I send the essay here, to this email <[email blocked]> or to another email?

    Thank you
    Jing Hui Fu

  6. 4 Posted by Luisina Busso on 16 Apr, 2017 11:46 PM

    Luisina Busso's Avatar

    Thank you very much,

    You are considered an applicant.

    Best of wishes,

    Luisina Busso
    Student Relations
    South American Business Forum

  7. Luisina Busso closed this discussion on 16 Apr, 2017 11:46 PM.

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